International Draughts Laboratory
|Player A||Player B|
International Draughts rules
In all Draughts variants, the following rules apply:
- Players take turn by moving one piece
- Pieces can move to an adjacent empty position
- An adjacent opponent piece can be captured by jumping over it (which implies the next position is available)
- When possible, several captures can be performed at the same round (with the same piece)
In International Draughts, the additional rules also apply:
- The board and initial position is the following:
- Pieces moves only on dark squares
- Simple pieces can only move forward, except for capture
- Promoted pieces, called kings, can move along any diagonal
- After a capture, a king can stop at any available position on the diagonal after the captured piece (assuming skipped positions were free)
- White starts
- Capture is compulsory
- Captured pieces are removed after all captures are done
- If a player must choose between several capture sequences, he must choose the one that captures the most opponent pieces
- If a piece reaches the last line during a capture sequence, it is not promoted, unless the capture finishes on the last line
- A player who cannot play any move loses the game
International Draughts description
Draughts (or Checkers) probably originated in Egypt as gaming boards were found in the Durna temple (1400 B.C.). The game Quirkat was then mentioned around 970 A.C. in an Arabic book. Following the invasion of Spain by the moors, it became Alquerque. Its rules were first written in the Libro de los juegos, commissioned by Alfonso X, king of Castille, Leon and Galicia (1221-1284).
Alquerque is played on a board where junctions between possible positions are explicitely displayed:
Playing Alquerque rules on a chess board appears in the south of France around 1100. The game is described under the name Fierges in 1243, and the rule allowing promotion is introduced. The game name then changes to Dames.
There are many variants of draughts, where board size, promoted pieces move rules, compulsory capture and a few other rule details vary.
International Draughts credits
History lost the name of those who invented the Draughts game base, but a few contributors deserve to be mentionned here:
- Alfonso X of Castille (1221-1284) for writing the rules of Alquerque for the first time.
- Philip Mouskat (~1243) for mentionning the crowning rule.
- Robert Charles Bell (1917-2002) for his research in board games and draughts in general, and for proposing improvements to the rules of Alquerque.